ŻŻẺԪ

ź

ŻŻẺԪ

ŻŻẺԪ

. .ժ آ
ʶҺѹѡԳ֡ Է·ѡԳ ʧ

1.
šȹͧµѹ͡§ ʹյлѨغѹ ͹Ҩժ੾˹觷ʹ ֧ٴ ҹ㹷ءءҧзءԺҧȨҧ "Ԫ" (Srivijaya) Ѻ͹ҡ㹻ѵʵ֡Ңͧµѹ͡ §繤áͻҳ 87 շҹ 觼šзǧԪҡâͧšҧҧҧǹҹҡش ˹ ѹҨлԹҡŧҹ֡Ҥ鹤ҷǡѺͧԴ ҧҡ ѧҡҧ׺ͧҵҺз觻Ѩغѹ(1) ˵ع ͡ҡ͹繷ѡШѹշش㹺ô ªҵµѹ͡§ ͹ѧ繷ѡѹշشšա˹觴
ҡþѲҢ鹴Եѹҡͧ "Ԫ" ǹ 觼͹Ѻ繪ͷҡµѹ͡§ 㹻Ժդҡǡѹ ҧóբͧûҡ㹰ҹз繪ͧͧ͢ ͧ͢ҳҨѡ ͧ͢ѵ Ъͧ͢ٻẺҧŻ 繵 㹺СǶ֧ҢͧԪѧࢻ ˹ѡҧҹŻŻẺԪ (Srivijaya Art, or Srivijaya Style) ѡ

2. ҢͧԪ
.. 2261 ҷǧⴵ (Renaudot) վŨ˵ءԹҧͧѺ 2 Թҧ .. 1394 㹡ҧطȵɷ 15 㹨˵ءԹҧѺ 2 Ƕ֧ѰդӤѭҧҹäҢ ѰҧԹ¡ѺȨչ չ "ຫ" (Serbeza)
ա 200 յ 㹻 .. 2461 ʵҨ (George Coedes) ǪҭԪҡҹ֡лѵʵҳµѹ ͡§ ¹֧Թᴹ觹ҽ ͺ "ҪҳҨѡԪ" (Le Royaume de Crivijaya) "Ԫ" ҨҡӷҡҨ֡ѡ˹ Ҩ֡ѴͧҨ֡ѡ 23 աѡ㹻 .. 1318 աä鹾Ѵͧ ࢵͧҳոҪ ͧ ѧѴոҪ
㹺ѧʵҨ ҴԹᴹǶ֧ҧ ຫҹ 繴Թᴹժ "ҳҨѡԪ" ¡ººѺ "պث" (Sribuza) ФҨչҪǧѧ (T'ang Dynasty) "⿪" (Shihli-fo-Shih) ͡ҡʵҨ ѧ ҳҨѡùҳҨѡ÷ա㹨֡ .. 1229 кѧ (Banka) Թⴹ Ҩ֡Ѵͧ ѧѴոҪ ѡ .. 1318 ( Ҩ֡ѡ 23 ) 㹺ôҨ֡ͧҪǧ (Chola Dynasty) ҤͧԹ 㹾طȵɷ 16 (2)
ʵҨ ͵Դ繢ͧʵҨԹŴ (Groeneveldt) ʴ㹻 .. 2419 ҳҨѡԪ¹繢ͧ Ҫҹյͧѧ (Palembang) ҧҹȵѹ͡§ͧҵ (Sumatra) Թⴹ ҡ֡Ҥ鹤㹴Թᴹᶺͧѧ ֧ .. 2461 辺իҡҳѵʶҹҡѡ ʵҨ ֧ӵͧҼ黡ͧҳҨѡԪǡѺäǺ Թ㹪ͧ᤺С (Strait of Malacca) зҷҧʹʶҹҡ´ѧЪ (Java) Թⴹ (3)
ػ ѺʵҨ ѭѵԤ "ҳҨѡԪ" 繤á .. 2461 繵 ӹԴ͹ǧâͧѡѵʵ ѡѵʵŻ ѡҳ ѡҹ֡ҳ йѡԪҡҢҵҧ ҧҧҧ ᷺¡Ҥӹҷµ֡͡Ҥ鹤ҢͧѡҪš ੾йѡҪҤµѹ͡§ʹ㹡֡ͧ 繾 ҡ֡ͧдԹҹҹǡ ȹзѴ駡ѹͧ ੾ǡѺ駢ͧҪҹҳҨѡԪ¹ѧ״ ҵҺз觻Ѩغѹ ѧйӷȹǡѺ駢ͧҪҹբͧҳҨѡԪ·ʹ͡ѹ .. 2461 繵 ػ੾ǹͧѡҪᵡҧѹѧ
ʵҨ դٹҧͧҳҨѡԪ ͧѧ ҵ Թⴹ (4)
ʵҨҪ (R.C. Majumdar) դáٹҧͧҳҨѡԪ躹Ъ ǵѧͧҳոҪ (5)
. Է (H.G.Quaritch Wales) ѡѵʵդʹ㹷ҧѵʵҳբͧҤ µѹ͡§ҧҡ˹ ԹҧǨҳշӤѭҤµѹ͡§ դ ٹҧͧҳҨѡԪ¤èеͧҳ ѧѴɮҹ (6)
ʵҨع (J.L. Moens) դٹҧͧҳҨѡԪͧѹѹ (Kelantan) (Malay Peninsula) ǵѧͧ ҡ (Muara Takus) Ҥҧͧҵ Թⴹ (7)
ʵҨҨѹ Ѫ ç֡ͧȷҧͧ㹨˵بչҾʵͧ Ҥ ǹººѺѹ֡Թҧ׺طʹҵѹ֡Թҧ ͧԡԧ (I-Tsing) ػŧٹҧͧҳҨѡԪ¤èͧҳ ѧѴɮҹ (8)
ʵҨ⫡ (R. Soekmono) ѡҳԷԹⴹ դٹҧͧҳҨѡԪͧ (Jambi) ҵ Թⴹ (9)
ҡȹТͧѡҪػʴ ͧǢͧҳҨѡԪѧ繻ѭҷҧԪҡ÷ѡԪҡ÷ءҢ 繷еͧ鹤ҷ駡âش鹷ҧҳС֡Ҩҡ͡ ʹ֡ҤʹءٻẺ

3. ŻẺԪ
ҡͷҳҨѡ˹ͧµѹ͡§ ҧǾطȵɷ 13-18 ҨҪҹյѹѺͧѧҵ㹻Ѩغѹ ҧҳҨѡùҨͺͧдԹᴹҧǹҤͧ ´ ѡҪҧҳ¡ҳҨѡù "Ԫ" ֡鹾 觼ա¡ŻԴҤͧ㹪ǧ ҹ "ŻẺԪ" (10)
㹷ҧѵʵŻ ѡѵʵŻ·ҹդ "ŻẺ Ԫ" դѺʹǧûѵʵŻҡ ѧȹзͧʵҨ . ġ ʴͧ "ͤԴǡѺẺŻ㹻"
èѴẺҧŻѷʹѡԴѺʹ ѹ ʡŪҧԪ¨ѴŻ辺ҧҤͧ ҧѺطʹҹҧҧطȵɷ 12 ֧ҧطȵɷ 18 зԹᴹᶺ鹵ûͧҳҨѡԪ ٹҧѧ ͹ͧҵ ѭҷԴ 㹡÷ӧҹԨ´ҹѵʵŻ ѷʹѡ ѭҡ¡оطٻԹҹ͡ҡоطٻҹ ੾зӺҡҡ;оطٻ辺 з蹤ոҪ 繾оطٻẺԷԾͭҧջѭ Һ㴷 "Ԫ" ¶֧ҷ駡á˹·ҧѵʵСá˹ẺŻТͧ Ż Һ鹡դѺʹ ѺʵҨ ӤԪ㹻 2461 Ԫ㹻ѵʵ¨֧¶֧ҳҨѡ÷ѡ Һҳࢵҧ 㹴ҹѵʵŻШ͡ѡɳҧá÷Һ 㹴ҹҷҧѵʵѡԪ§ҡ֡ѡ˹ 蹤ոҪ ֡ѡҪҡ .. 1318 ѧ ͧҳҨѡҳҨѡ˹ᶺոҪǻ¾ط ȵɷ 13 ֧ҧطȵɷ 14 ѡҹ͹ҳҨѡùԷԾŷҧͧ˹͹ ҧ 㹤ҺطҤͧ ʷԧ㹪ǧҹ ҡҧطȵɷ 16 ֧ҧطȵɷ 18 ҡҹոҪԷԾ ͢稨ԧ蹹֧١ͧ¡еҡͧ طʹҹ صҧطȵɷ 12 ֧ҧطȵɷ 18 ŻԪ· ԨóẺͧŻҹҧ´ ੾ҧջеҡŻ ҧ §ͧʡŪҧŻѹ觴ѧͧ Ѻ¡ Ԫ ˵ؼ§ʹѺʹع й鹤繷еͧ֡Ż㹤ҺطҤͧʡ ҧ ٨ҡ觡ʡŪҧͧ鹵ҧ 㹵͹˹ա ҹŻзӷͧз蹤ոҪʴ֧觤ó ͧླշҧŻ ѺûѺاժԵҢ Ѻѹ㨨ҡԷԾŷ¹͡ ʡŪҧͧҡŻԷԾԹ·ҡ㹻 繵 ٻʹҾҶ֧ҳҧطȵɷ 10 ;оطٻǡѹػҳҧطȵɷ 11 ͪҧдѺ٧ ǹɳط辺⹴Ѵ繧ҹͧʡŪҧʷԧ ػҳҧطȵɷ 13 㹪ǧҹ طʹҹҡѹ (Nalanda) ѹʡŪҧ ҧäеҡսͪҧ عҾ٧ ŻẺѹѡɳТͧеҡ ͹ 繵 ⾸ѵѷҳԷ辺ʷԧ ẺŻФͷҧʹҫҨҡѹ价Ҥͧ Թⴹ СԴŻЪҤҧ㹻Թⴹ ԷԾŢͧŻЪҤҧз͹ѺԹᴹ觵ѹͧ͡Ҥ ͧա ѧҡеҡٻз辺ʧ ͹¾طȵɷ 14 ͵鹾طȵɷ 15 Ҵ͹еԷԾŨ (Cham) ҧҧطȵɷ 16 ֧ҧطȵɷ 18 ͹ҨеԷԾѲ ǡѹ ǡҧطȵɷ 14 Թᴹ觵ѹͧҤͧᶺСǻҡѺԷԾŻ ԹẺ (Pallava Style) ѧҡ ǡҧطȵɷ 16 ѺԷԾŻԹẺ (Chola Style) § ȵɵԷԾŻԹẺҤѯԹ (Naga Pattinam Style) ҡ鹷蹤ոҪ ҡͧ ǡѺŻзǨҧҤͧ´ѧػҹ ͧ٨Ҥ "Ԫ" ҧСҧԹ (11)
ǹʵҨѷô ȡ çվд ŻẺԪ ѺԷԾŨҡŻԹẺػ (Gupta Style) ҧǾطȵɷ 9-11 ŻẺѧػ (Post-Gupta Style) ҧǾطȵɷ 11-13 ŻẺ-ʹ (Pala-Sena Style) ŻẺҧǾطȵɷ 14-17 ŻẺʹҧǾطȵɷ 17-18 ӴѺ ͡ҡҳѵŻẺ鹾ҤͧҨѡ ʹԴ ѡɳз¤֧ѹѺͧաä鹾ЪҤҧ (طȵɷ 12 13 ֧ 15) ҡ ҡзҺ㴷㹻 зպҧҹբʹ Żз¡ẺԪ·ҧҤͧ¹ Ҩ¡ẺҪǧŹҧҤҧͧЪҡ ˵͹ѺŻз鹾ЪҡŻз鹾 ҵ ǹҡҧ㹾طʹѷҹ ŻẺԪ 鹾㹺dzҤͧ¤ŧҨз觶֧ҧط ȵɷ 19 ѹ繪ǧҷԹᴹ觹ҳҨѡ⢷ ŻẺԪµ͹ѡɳᵡҧѹҡشҨѺ ԷԾҨҡ Ҩǡѹ ֧պҧҹʹ Ҩ¡ŻẺԪ· ҷ¡ŻзҧҤͧŻзѡԳҡ (12)
㹷ШѴѡҹҧҳշ鹾Ҥͧ㹢й ͧѹѺطʹ ѷҹ ѡ¡ѹ·ŻẺԪ͡繡ѡ š֡Ңͧ¹зҹ á ʶһѵ¡ ͧ еҡ С Եá (13)

4. ʶһѵ¡ŻẺԪ
㹻Ѩغѹաä鹾ʶһѵ¡ͧ㹾طʹ ѷҹ աҧä鹺Һطͧ á ʶٻ (Stupa, or Tupa) лͧ ਵʶҹ (Chaitya Hall)

4.1 ʶٻ
ʶٻŻẺԪ¹ ֧ҨлҡҧҧҧǷ駤Һط¡ ŧ㹻ѨغѹǹҾشش ʶٻŻẺǹ˭ѺԷԾŨҡŻẺзԭͧ 㹺dzҤѹ͡§˹ͧ͢Թ ʶٻհҹٻ ˹ǹҹٻͧͧҤ÷çٻ իҹ ˹ǹҤâǹʹͧʶٻ 觷ʶٻٻçʹ ҡʶٻաä鹾㹢й öШѴͧ͡ٻẺ ʶٻٻẺáաҧäҧǾطȵɷ 14-15 ʶٻѺԷԾŢͧŻẺТͧԹ ǹʶٻٻẺͧաҧäҧǾطȵɷ 16-19 ʶٻѲҡ͡仨ҡʶٻٻẺáٻẺҧŻз 繢ͧͧ (14)
4.1.1 ʶٻٻẺá ʶٻἹѧٻҡҷ 躹ǹҹҨ§ͫ͹ѹª ˹ǹҹǹͧͧʶٻٻիҹ ˹ǹͧͧʶٻǹʹ 觷ʶٻç ʶٻӤѭٻẺѧҡ ҷ
1) ʶٻѴҸҵ ʶٻҧȵѹͧ͡кҵ਴칤ոҪ çdzеٷҧҢͧ§ͧѴҸҵ ࢵȺŹùոҪ Ӻͧ ͧ ѧѴոҪ ʶٻǹҹٻ ҹǹ˭ѧ㹾鹴Թ ˹͢ǹͧʶٻ آ͡ҷҹ ˹آʶٻçҴ硻дѺآͧ ǹçҧǹʹ٧ʶٻçѧҷհҹٻ˧ ʶٻͧٻẺҧŻФ¤֧ѹѺѹԡѹ (Kalasan) 㹪Ҥҧ Թⴹ ѺҧäǾطȵɷ 14 ʶٻԹ 1 (Mi Son AI) 货ͧ ´ ҧǻ¾طȵɷ 15 ֧ѹɰҹʶٻѴҸҵͧѺҧä ҧǾطȵɷ 14-15
2) ʶٻѴкҵҪ Ӻ§ ѧѴɮҹ ʶٻѡ¡ѹ· " кҵ" 㹪ҨաҧǡѹѺʶٻѴ (Ѵѵ) ѹѺͧҳ ѧҨաúó¤ ٻẺ¹ŧҡ ·ٻçͧʶٻͧѡɳ§ѹѺʶһѵ¡ҧѧ Ҥҧٻѡ麹§ҧͺʶٻþط (Borobudur) 㹪Ҥҧ Թⴹ ҡ÷кҵѺëҧҡ ´繨ӹǹҡöйººѹѺ ʶһѵ¡Ҥҧʶһѵ¡ͧ㹻´ ҧá çҧҧʶһѵ¡ͧҳʶҹ觹ٻẺҧǡѹѺʹ ʶҹͧ ҡ§ҹ㹻 .. 2439 Ұҹͧҳʶҹ觹֡ŧ仨ҡдѺǴԹ 1.00 駨ҡմѧǨ֧ .. 2444 աë˭ §ҹëͧ .. 2439 鹾ѡҹͧëҳʶҹ觹¤ʹյ
3) ʶٻѴѴѵ Ӻ ѧѴɮҹ ʶٻҾشѺúó ʶٻ觹ҧ԰ Ἱѧٻҡҷ Сͺͧ⶧ҧآա 4 ҹ آҹȵѹ͡繷ҧͧ⶧ҧ ʶٻ躹ҹٻ պѹ䴷ҧ鹷ҧҹȵѹ͡зȵѹ ѧҹ͡ҵԴѺѧ ͧʹǢͧ еٷҧҹѧҾ ѧիͧ ʹǧ дѺ ѹɰҹҤշҹ ʶٻͧդ¤֧ѹѺʶһѵ¡㹵ҧᴹ ѡɳзӤѭͧʶٻ觹 Ἱѧٻҡҷ Сͺͧ⶧ҧآҹ ѡɳ͹ѹѺѹԡѹ 㹪Ҥҧ ҧ .. 1333-1343 ѡɳТͧõ¹͡դ¤֧ѹѺŻШҧѴਹ ٻẺͧҷآҧҹѡɳТͧǴººѹѺ ҷͧҧ (Pho Hai) 㹻´ ǻ¾طȵɷ 14 Ѻ駢ͧҴ硷ͨҡҷآҧҹСõ ѧҹ͡Ҩͧ ѡɳФ¡ѹѺҷͧͧͧ˹觷Թ 1 ǡҧطȵɷ 15 ˵ع ֧Ἱѧͧʶٻ觹ѡɳ͹ѹѺʶһѵ¡ 㹪ǧáͧطȵɷ 14 㹪Ҥҧ ҹͧ͡ʶһѵ¡¤֧ѹѺŻШǡҧطȵɷ 15
4) ʶٻѴŧ (ҧ) ӺŵҴ ѧѴɮҹ ʶٻҾشѺúó ʶٻ觹ҧ԰ ǹҹٻẺҧŻǡѹѺʶٻѴǷ ѺúóЫҧ 2 Ǿطȵɷ 17-18 ʶٻͧҧ¡á԰ͻٹ Ѵ˹Ҩº Ἱѧǹҹٻҡҷ ի͡ҵǷȷЫ ҹҧ繰ҹԺͧ ҧȵѹ͡繫˭ պѹ䴷ҧͧҧ ǹ շҧ

4.1.2 ʶٻẺͧ ʶٻѺԷԾŨҡʶٻẺá ǹ˭ʶٻѺë¤ǡѹ Ǵçͧʶٻ¹ŧ ʶٻз͹繽ͪҧ㹷ͧҧ ʶٻٻẺѧҡǡѹ ҷ
1) ʶٻѴԧ ҹ͡ͺҹ 3 ӺŶԧ ͤѰԤ ѧѴɮҹ ʶٻǹҹǹ ºѺǹʹ٧ҡ ǹҧآ͡ҷҹ ˹ǹʹҧẺͧ͹ѹ繪 Ъ鹻дѺʶٻ移лѹѺʶٻç ѲҢ㹷ͧ ʶٻͧ餧ѺҧäǾطȵɷ 19
2) ʶٻѴ (ҧ) 觵㹺dzѴɮóѴ͡ Ӻŷо ѧǹ ѧѴ ʶٻҾش ٻẺҧŻзѺԷԾŨҡʶٻẺá ФʶٻѺҧäǾطȵɷ 19
3) ʶٻѴҧ 3 Ӻŷ ͷ ѧѴոҪ ʶٻͧ˹㹺ôʶٻͧѧҡҾشش Ѵ ʶٻҧ԰ բҴ˭ ҧҹ˹ͧ͢ʶ հҹٻѵ ǹҹբҴ 8 x 8 ٧ҳ 16 ǹʹѧ ੾ǹҹǹѺҧäǾط ȵɷ 19
4) ʶٻѴѡ ҹѡ Ӻŷѧ ͷ˭ ѧѴոҪ ʶٻաëٻẺŻẺͧҡ Ǥ ʶٻἹѧٻҡҷ ç觡ҧͧҹءҹաҧʶٻͧ˹͡ ʶٻի͡价 4 ҹ ǹͧЦѧٻ Ѵ繤Цѧ ѧٻ ǹʹջͺҡѹ ѴҹзѡԳ躹ҹ٧ ʶٻٻẺ¤֧ѹѺҷء çҧʶٻͧ˭ آ͡ҵçҧءҹͧ Ѵʶٻ繷çǡѹ ի͡ҵçҧͧءҹ зʶٻͧͧ ѴҡЦѧ繺ѧǹʹ ǹʹͺҡѹ ѹɰҹʶٻѺҧäǾطȵɷ 19
5) ʶٻѴѧ 3 Ӻź͵ ⹴ ѧѴʧ ʶٻʹ԰лСѧ ͻٹ ҧ繵ǻҹ §԰Ẻк ѹ෤ԤԸջԺѵŻẺԪ Ҿͧʶٻشҡ §ǹҹٻѵ ҡâش觺óҳʶҹ觹 աä鹾ǹҧҹҡͧʶٻǹҧ ԰Ҵ˭蹺ҧ ǹͧͧѺͧʶٻ͢ ʶٻͧ餧ѺҧǾطȵɷ 19


4.2 ਵʶҹ
ҹͧҺطҤͧҧǾطȵɷ 13-19 ѲӷԴͧҵԹٹͧҺطҤͧ ʹʶҹͧ㹾طʹҷҡաѡ ҧ׺ͧС͹˹ҹ ѧѲѺ׺ʹѡ׺ͧ ѧҡѲШ͡ҧҧҧ зҹա
ҡͧ·ҧҳշѧ㹢йʴ ਵʶҹҹѺûѺդѺʹʶҹ ͧ㹾طʹ ҡਵʶҹ§ǡաѴǹͧਵʶҹ ͡繺dzѴਹ պdzӤѭ 3 dz dzá 繺dzѺûдɰҹٻþ dzѡШѴԴѺѧ 輹ѧҹش͡Ҩ֧ѧͧҡ ·輹ѧǹشͧѡ繷дɰҹоطʹ좹Ҵ˭ Ѵ͡ѡ繾оطٻҧ ٻþ 㹾طʹ ٻþҹǹ˭Ӵ´ԹԺ лٹ dzͧ 繺dzѺûдɰҹоʶٻͧҴ ǹҳѵطӴ´ԹԺ ǹ˭鹾㹺dz͡׺ѧʹҹѧ ѹѺٻþͺdzͺٻþҹ кdz 繺dz觷㹺dzçҧͧਵʶҹ dz餧ͧ⶧ѺʧоطʹԡѺûСͺ Ըա ǹ㹡óշਵʶҹ㴻Сͺ¤ҷͧѹ¤ Ҩա觤ҹ͡ªҧШ觢 ҷբҴ˭ش繷дɰҹٻþդѡԷ ͧŧ ҧҨдɰҹоԹԺʶٻͧԹԺ кҧҨ繡دԢͧʧ 繵 ͡ҡѧҡҺҧաûдѺ觼ѧӴ¨ԵáҼѧ ա (15)
ҡǨҧҳ㹢й աä鹾ਵʶҹ㹤Һط觹繨ӹǹҡ ਵʶҹҹǺҹ·ѡ¡ "" "Ѵ" ˹ǵªͧ͢ ਵʶҹҹ駡ШǷ駤ҺطҤͧ ҷ
1) ҢҺ ӺŻҡ ͧ ѧѴк
2) Ѵԧ ҹ͡ͺҹ 3 ӺŶԧ ͤѰԤ ѧѴɮҹ
3) Ż ҹѹѧ 2 Ӻ˹Ҷ ͧ ѧѴ
4) Ӿ ӺŤä ͧ ѧѴѷا
5) Ӻźҧ ʹ ѧѴѧ
6) ѴҹͶѴ 2 Ӻҡͺ ʹ ѧѴѧ
7) Ң ӺҢ ʹ ѧѴѧ
8) Ҫͧ ӺŤǹ ͹Ժ ѧѴոҪ
9) ͡ͶӾ ӺŤä ͧ ѧѴѷا
10) Ѵآ ҹ˹Ҷ 1 Ӻ˹Ҷ ͧ ѧѴ
11) ҢͶӢͶӾ ҹ˹ͧԧ 1 Ӻžؾ ͺҹ ѧѴ ɮҹ
12) ᴧ ͹Ժ ѧѴոҪ

5. еҡŻẺԪ
㹻Ѩغѹաä鹾еҡͧ㹾طʹ ѷҹ ҳյҧ Ш¡ѹǷ駤Һط еҡѧöШṡ͡һ á еҡµ ͧ ʶٻͧ о ֡ѡ л (16)


5.1 еҡµ
ŻẺԪ¢ͧҺطҤͧաä鹾еҡ ẺµǢͧٻþ㹾طʹ ѷҹ 繨ӹǹҡ ٻþӤѭٻþͧоطо⾸ѵͧ ҷ
5.1.1 оطѡ 觻дɰҹҧȵѹͧ͡ʶٻѴ ѧѴɮҹ Ӵ Ǿطȵɷ 15 ֧ ҧطȵɷ 16 Ѩغѹ仨Ѵʴ ԾԸѳҶ觪ҵ оطҾͧйͧͧդҾмç ç繾иҹԾط (¶֧оط觨ѡ;оطͧá ѹ繾оطͧ٧شѷҹ ԡѪҹ ç繼Դšооطͧ ) ͧ˹㹨ӹǹͧͧԡѪҹ ç繾оطҷзѺҧȵѹ͡ зѺ觻ҧԪ˹ʹٻԧԧʹ ٻԧѡҹҧͧҹҧе ͧ˹ҢͧҹѪлдѺ
5.1.2 ⾸ѵš ⾸ѵ㹾طʹ ѷҹͧ Դҡоطѷҹçй оطԵ ֧ѡлҡҾͧоطͧзѺ˹ó ⾸ѵš÷çѺþѺҡ ҷç繼ͧѺѷҹؤѨغѹ ͧçٻẺ¾й ùѺ;ͧѧԹᴹŷѷҹ件֧ ͧþѵѡʴҧзҹ ѵ·çͺǪ (ѷ) ѡзç١Ф ˹ѧ ͡ ͹ ӴѺ Ңͧͧ йҧ

ǡҧطȵɷ 12 ֧ҧطȵɷ 13 ҡѡҹҧҳշʴ繶֧ûҡ鹢ͧطʹ ѷҹ Һط觹 ѡҹҧҳմѧ еҡͧ⾸ѵš ԷԾŻԹẺػ СŪҧùҶ (Sarnath School) ѡ Ҵ٧ 114 ૹ 鹾Ѵҷ֧ (Ѵ) ѧѴɮҹ 觹Ѻ繻еҡͧ⾸ѵš÷ѡҷ դҡش鹾Ҥµѹ͡§㹢й ͡ҡѧաä鹾еҡͧ⾸ѵšաͧ˹ 觨Ѵ繻еҡͧ⾸ѵš÷ӴԴ դҡش㹻 ¤鹾ҳդǹҭ ;عԹ ѧѴɮҹ 繻еҡѺԷԾŨҡŻẺТͧԹ ͡ҡеҡͧ⾸ѵš÷ͧͧ 㹤Һط觹ѧաä鹾еҡͧ⾸ѵšա 繨ӹǹҡ ҷ
1) ⾸ѵš ҡѧѴɮҹ Ǥáͧطȵɷ 12 ѨغѹѴʴ ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ й
2) ⾸ѵš ҡѴкҵҪ ѧѴɮҹ Դ Ҿش §ͧ Ǿطȵɷ 14 ѨغѹѴʴ ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ й
3) ⾸ѵš ҡѴ਴ ⹴ ѧѴʧ Դ Ҿش§ͧ Ǥѧͧطȵɷ 14 ѨغѹѴʴ ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ ʧ
4) ⾸ѵš ҡѴкҵҪ ѧѴɮҹ Դ Ǿطȵɷ 14 ѨغѹѴʴ ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ й
5) ⾸ѵš ҡǹҭ ;عԹ ѧѴɮҹ Դ Ǿطȵɷ 15 ѨغѹѴʴ ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ ᾧྪ
6) ⾸ѵš ҡѴкҵҪ ѧѴɮҹ Ǥáͧطȵɷ 15 ѨغѹѴʴ ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ й
7) ⾸ѵš ҡҳѴ˹ͧ ͧ ѧѴոҪ Դ Ǿطȵɷ 14-15 ѨغѹѴʴ ¹ ѴҸҵ ͧ ѧѴոҪ
8) ⾸ѵš ҡѴç ӺŹ ;о ѧѴոҪ Դ Ǿطȵɷ 14-15 ѨغѹѴʴ ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ ոҪ
9) ⾸ѵšԺ ҡҹѴع ӺѴع ԧ˹ ѧѴʧ Դ Ǿطȵɷ 16 ѨغѹѴʴ ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ ʧ
10) ⾸ѵš ҡҳպҹǹ 1 ӺŤǹо ͧ ѧѴѷا Դ 㹾طȵɷ 13-14 ѨغѹѴʴ ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ ѴѪ ͧ ѧѴʧ
11) ⾸ѵš ҡҳպҹ˹ͧ ӺѴع ԧ˹ ѧѴʧ Դ Ǿطȵɷ 15 ѨغѹѴʴ ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ ѴѪ ͧ ѧѴʧ
12) ⾸ѵš;⾸ѵѷҳ 鹾ҡdzǹ¾ ԡ ҹѴҧ Ӻšдѧ ʷԧ ѧѴʧ Դ Ǿطȵɷ 15 ѨغѹѴʴ ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ ѴѪ ͧ ѧѴʧ
5.1.3 ⾸ѵ;⾸ѵí ⾸ѵͧ ç繾⾸ѵӤѭͧ˹觢ͧطʹ ѷҹ ç繾⾸ѵзç繾оط㹡Ţҧ˹; ͹Ҥط 㹻ѨغѹͧзѺä鹴Ե зçͤҷʴŧҨصš


㹤ҺطҤͧաä鹾еҡشͧ ⾸ѵͧ˹ 繻еҡӴԴ 鹾ҹҹ ѧѴѵҹ 繻еҡзѺ׹㹷ҵѧ 蹾ٻخ ٻʶٻͧ¢ͧ⾸ѵ»дѺҧҹ˹ ͧخ ͧ§óͧдѺз´͡дѺ 3 ͡ҹ çѪ⭻յ繼о§ѧҫ ͺͧҹ觴ҹҴѺ͡Ӵ¼ 㹪Ҥҧաä鹾еҡԴͧ⾸ѵ· ֧ѹá (Surakarta) еҡѧǹǾطȵɷ 13 ֧ҧطȵɷ 14
5.1.4 ⾸ѵѪ;Ѫ⾸ѵ 㹤ҺطҤͧ աä鹾Ѫ⾸ѵͧ˹ ѹɰҹһеҡ鹹餧ǹ˹觢ͧ "ѳ" ҧٻẺͧеҡ¡ "Ѫøҵ" ¤鹾ӺŨз駾 ʷԧ ѧѴʧ 繻еҡӴԴ Ǿطȵɷ 15 Ѩغѹʴ ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ ʧ
еҡ鹹餧ٻͧѪ⾸ѵͧ˹㹨ӹǹ 16 ͧ ͺиҹԾط 4 ͧ ¾иҹԾط 1 ͧ վѪ⾸ѵ 4 ͧ ẺἹͧѪøҵ㹤Ԣͧطʹ ѷҹ ԡѪҹ ѳẺǹ͡ҡлҡеҡͧѪ⾸ѵ иҹԾط 4 ͧ ҾѪøҵѧСͺٻоطè ⾸ѵ 16 ͧ ⾸ѵ ôҹҧ ෾ 㹹ԡѪҹ 1,061 ͧ աä鹾еҡԴ ٻẺͧѳдѧǷͧѹء (Nganjuk) Ҥѹͧ͡ЪҨӹǹ 90
еҡͧѪ⾸ѵ鹹зѺ׹;ͧ Ъҹص駩ҡѷʹ ѵͧҧ¡;ط çҾٻخ çóСкѧ˹ çЪҹ ·駪¼鵡ŧ鹵ç֧ѷʹ ѺҤҴʳŧٻǧ㹺dzҹ˹ зç١⺷ҧҹҧ çͧдѺҧ س ͧ ѧ Ѻǧ Ѵ ͧС зͧкҷ ѹ繻еҡٻẺ¤֧ѹѺеҡͧѪ ⾸ѵ㹡ͧеҡաä鹾ͧѹء
͡ҡʷԧ ѧѴʧ ѧաä鹾еҡԴͧѪ⾸ѵա˹ 繻еҡǡҧطȵɷ 18 ֧ҧطȵɷ 19 ѨغѹѴʴ ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ ѴѪ ͧ ѧѴʧ »еҡ鹹繻еҡͧѪ⾸ѵҤ֡ѺҤ ˹觢ͧͧѡ¡ѹ· "Ѫ" 觾طʹԡѡ͡ѹѪзç෾黡ͧѡ㹾ط ʹ ѷҹ ԡµѹ еҡͧͧѡաҧäçỴ Ժˡ ҧá еҡ鹹ѡɳзԴἡᵡҧ͡仨ҡ §ͧ ѧ ç͡д㹾ѵ¿Ѫ㹾ѵ

5.1.5 ҧѪһԵ ෾ͧ෾觻ѭѹ֡駢ͧطʹ ѹѡͧѪФӤѭͧطʹ ѷҹ ¡ʴ͡ٻẺͧ෾ռԴͧоطѷ ҹءͧ ѭѡɳШӾͧͧ෾ͧ ˹ѧͫҧ˹ʹ͡
㹤ҺطҤͧաä鹾еҡµǢͧ෾ͧ ˹觷Ӻŷ ͧ ѧѴոҪ 繻еҡӴԴ Ǿطȵɷ 18 ѨغѹѴʴ ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ ոҪ еҡ鹹зѺ׹ ѵҷçʹ͡ ѵ·çͤ ç ժ¼ҧҹ˹ٻѡ çҴ˹觷غлдѺ çкѧ˹خٻ çաس ͧ Ѵ ͧС зͧкҷ ͧçͧдѺͧ෾ͧդ¤֧ѹѺ еҡͧҧѪһԵŻТẺ¹ǡҧ طȵɷ 18
5.1.6 ҧ ෾ͧç繹ҧ (þѵѧѯ) ͧ˹ ·ç˹ҷ軡ͧѷҵ;йҧʹ鹨ҡ觪· 㹡ôԹԵ еҡͧйҧٻẺͧù ѵҨзçʴҧзҹ ѵ¨зçʹ͡ص (͡ǺҹչԹǧ) ҹ͡ »зѺ㹷Եʹ (ҹͧ Ңҧ˹觧;Ѻ ǹաҧ˹ŧѧ蹷ͧѺ) ѷʹ йҧչ (ժª˹ͤ) зçШӾͧ ѧ " õص " ѡ͡ѹӹҨ˭駻ǧ йҧç繻Ѫѭѡɳͧѧее鹢ͧ طо⾸ѵ ǡѹѺѡʹҾͧ⾸ѵš
㹤ҺطҤͧաä鹾еҡԴͧ෾ͧ ͧͧ ͧá 鹾ʷԧ ѧѴʧ Ǿطȵɷ 15-16 ѨغѹѴʴ ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ ʧ ෾ԷԾŻԹẺ ٻẺ§ѹҡѺٻҧҷ辺ѹ ǹͧͧ 繹ҧҷçỴ 鹾ҹǤ ѧѴɮҹ 繻еҡդ¤֧ѹѺеҡͧҧỴ÷Ӵ ԴҡҳշԺ (Tippera) ѹѺͧҳҵ (Mainamati) 㹻Ⱥѧ㹻Ѩغѹ еҡ鹹ǡҧطȵɷ 15 ֧ҧطȵɷ 16 ѨغѹѴʴ ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ й


5.1.7 ҧع ෾ͧ෾շѺþѺ͡ѹҧҡҤѹ ͧ͡ວ ѡ͡ѹ෾ͧç͡ԴҨҡѧӹҨͧоط Է зçѭѡɳͧҶҨعҸԳ ֧ç෾շӹҨҡ ͡ҡ෾ͧѧ "ѳ" ͧйҧͧ 㹤ѭѪ йҧçԴҨҡѧӹҨͧоطèա
㹾ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵԾй ջеҡԴµǢͧ෾շˡͧ˹ ѹɰҹ繻еҡͧйҧ 繻еҡҨФ鹾㹤ҺطҤͧ еҡ鹹ѵҧͧҧçʴҧҸ ѵҺç١Ф ѵҡҧçʴҧзҹҧҾѵ ѵºç˹ѧ ѵ¡ҧѡзç͹ йҧзѺ觢ѴҸྪ˹ͻѷʹհҹٻТͧ Ѻ çҾٻخзçдѺʶٻҧҹ˹ çо¼þҴҹѧҫ çкѧ˹ س ͧ Ѵ зçС ͧѧçջٻçͺ͡觴 еҡ鹹ѡɳ§ѹҡѺٻҧعˡ÷ҧ ҧҤѹͧ͡ວ 㹪ǧûͧͧѵҪǧзٹҧ ͧҵ 㹻Ⱥѧ㹻Ѩغѹ Ҫǧԭͧ㹪ǧǡѹѺآͧ еҡ鹹 Ǥáͧطȵɷ 14
5.1.8 Ǫ Ǫŷç෾觤觤㹾طʹ ֧ѡաҧҾͧͧٻẺͧеҡԴоо 繨ӹǹҡ еҡͧͧѡʴҾ繺ͧ طþ зѺ㹷Եʹ çվѡѧٻ (ѵԧ) º˹Ъҧ èѡͧѧ ͧçͼй㹾ѵ ѵ·çպ;ѧ͹ѭ ѹѡɳ੾Тͧͧ кҷҷçͷշѾ͡ ˺èطѾԹҧ§˹Һѧͧͧ 㹤ҺطҤͧաä鹾еҡµ ӴԴͧͧ˹觷ʷԧ ѧѴʧ 繻еҡǤáͧطȵɷ 14 ѨغѹѴʴ ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ ѴѪ ͧ ѧѴʧ


5.2 ʶٻͧ
ҹͧҺطҤͧ աä鹾ҳѵطաҧ͡طȶͧ㹾ط ʹ繨ӹǹҡ ҳѵشѧǷ鹾Һط觹ҹդ ֧ѹҧ觡Ѻôҳѵطաҧ鹴ѵ ʧҧǡѹաä鹾ҳվط⾸Ԥ (Bodhgaya) 觵ҧ͹ͧͧ (Gaya) 鹾 (Bihar) Թ Ѻطʹԡ ⾸Ԥ§ʶҹѺèԡǧح§ҹ ҡҧѴਹʶҹ觹ʶҹդӤѭ ҡش ôҼѷ㹾طʹҨ֧Ҩҡ觵ҧ 繨ӹǹҡ ͷж¤þѡʶҹѡԷ觹 ʶҹ觡õͧоطҡع
㹺ôҳѵطաèѴӢ͡طȶͧ㹾طʹ ٻẺ ٻẺѺդⴴҡش ʶٻͧ աҧäŻẺ ٻẺ ءẺվ鹰ҹ͹ѹ СͺǹӤѭǹ ǹá ǹҹӢٻͧѵ çش觡ҧͧдҹǹ͡ ǹͧ ǹҧ˹ǹҹ ѡ¡ͧЦѧ աõ繫ҹҧͧʶٻ 㹫ٻþдɰҹ ǹ ǹش ѡաôѴŧҡٻẺͧѵ ʶٻҹշ駷ӢҨҡѡԹҧäʴ 駷Ӵ´Թ˹ ҧǹաúè蹴Թ˹ǢҴ硷աáзѺѡͨ֡ ѡ (17)
ҹͧҺطҤͧ աä鹾ʶٻҴ硷ѡ¡ѹ· "ʶٻͧ" 繨ӹǹҡ ʶٻҹҨ͡ҧҧ ͧٻẺ ʶٻͧӴԴ ʶٻͧӴ´ԹԺʹԹ

5.2.1 ʶٻͧӴԴ ҳਵʶҹӤآ Ӻ˹Ҷ ͧ ѧѴ աä鹾ʶٻͧӴԴͧ˹ ʶٻҧǡҧطȵɷ 14 ֧ҧطȵɷ 15 Ѩغѹ㹤ͺͧͧѴӤآ Ӻ˹Ҷ ͧ ѧѴ ʶٻͧٻẺ¤֧ѹѺʶٻԴ繨ӹǹҡաä ⾸ԤҷԷ¹ѹ ͧѹ Թ ʶٻͧٻẺӤѭ ͧʶٻ躹ҹٻ պѹ䴷ҧ鹵ç觡ҧͧǹҹҹ ˹ͰҹͧѺ°ҹǤӺ˧պ١ФӤҧ ҹѳ (ͧЦѧ) ˹ѳТպѧٻ ѹѡɳ੾ТͧѧŻԹẺ ͧѺҩѵ ǹѵͻͧ䩹 ѡ ȷçѺѹի駻дɰҹеҡͧеҤͧ ѡ Шӷȵѹ͡ ѵ Шӷ Ե Шӷȵѹ оԷ Шӷ˹ ͧҡʶٻͧѭѡɳͧѡ㹾طʹ еҤ;иҹԾطҷ֧ͧçѹоѡѧȷ ͧз ¾иҹԾطҷͧзѺ躹ʶٻѹоѡ ȷͧШ ѺиҹԾطͧ оطèй鹷çʴҧȹ лШ ͧ աʴҾͧʶԵʶٻ ¹ԡѪҹҧоطҢҾͧ 㹤¡ "еҤ" " ҹԾطҷ" ջҧطѭѡɳШӾͧ оطè (ʧҧ) ҧȹ оطѡ (˹ѡ) ҧԪ оطѵ (Դҡ) ҧзҹ оطԵ (ʧҧ繹ѹ) ҧҸ ооطԷ (ѧʹ) ҧзҹ еҤͧѭѡɳͧʡѳ (ѹ) ٻ Ƿ ѭ ѧ ԭҳ ѧѭѡɳͧȷѹ繵᷹ͧѡ еҤͧöлҡͧ⾸ѵ ¾ط ෾͹ҧѪǹʵբͧط⾸ѵ ѺѧʡŢͧͧͧ ѹСͺ෾ҧ Ѻͧ ٻẺ鹰ҹͧʶٻͧ͹ѹѺʶٻԴͧ鹾 ҳ ͪصѪ (Achutrajpur) Ѱ ʶٻҹ鹡ͧ㴷պѹдҹ ѡɳ蹹ҡʶٻԴաä鹾ѹ ʶٻͧЦѧдѺҾ˵ءóӤѭ㹾طѵԢͧ оطҡعշ 8 ͹һүỴҧ ٻͧ⾸ѵзѺ觢ҺҧѹТҧ 㹢зʶٻͧ辺ҡӤآͧҧѹдҹҾ ԧͺҹ ҡ÷ʶٻ鹾ӤآͧٻẺդѹѹ ҧԴѺʶٻͧŻẺ ֧ҨС˹ʶٻͧ鹾㹶Ӥآͧ طȵɷ 14 ֧ҧطȵɷ 15
5.2.2 ʶٻͧӴ´ԹԺʹԹ ਵʶҹͶӷʹʶҹ㹾طʹҹͧҺطҤ ͧ աä鹾ʶٻͧӴ´ԹԺʹԹ繨ӹǹҡ ʶٻҹѡФ鹾ѹѺоٻẺҧ ʶٻͧҹѡʶٻբҴ 鹼ٹҧ 5.00-6.00 ૹ ٧ 6.00 ૹ ʶٻǹҹٻǧ ˹ǹҹͧʶٻѳзçͷçЦѧ ¤֧ѹѺʶٻͧ鹾ҡ⾸Ԥ Ǿطȵɷ 14-15 Ӵ´Թ բҴ٧ 8.00 ૹ ѨغѹѴʴ ԵԪ (British Museum) ا͹͹ ѧ ͡ҡѧҡʶٻͧաä鹾㹤ҺطҤͧ ҧͧdzͺЦѧʶٻ дѺͺ ʶٻҧͧǹҹͧʶٻաáзѺ¤Ҷҷբͤ ҧǡѹѺҡ㹨֡Ҷͨ֡ѡ鹾ʶٻͧ աä鹾⾸Ԥ ¨֡ѧǹѡ¡ѹ·㹻ҤҶ " " ¤ҶҴѧǷ鹾ʶٻ鹾㹤ҺطҤͧ· ѡѡǹҤ (Deva Nagri) ѹʡĵ Ǿطȵɷ 13-14 ਵʶҹӤѭաä鹾ʶٻͧ ҷ Ӥآ Ӻ˹Ҷ ͧ ѧѴ жҢ Ӻžؾ ͺҹ ѧѴɮҹ 繵


5.3 о
㹢зѹԧ (Alexander Cunningham) Թâش鹷ҧҳշ⾸ ȵɷҹ ѹԧ§ҹǡѹաä鹾蹴Թ˹ٻẹ աáзѺҾͧоط෾ 㹾طʹҷ¡ѹ· "о" ҳѵա˹觷աҧ͡طȶ طʹ繨ӹǹҡ ҳѵػѡɳ͹ѹѺ蹴Թ˹ٻẹաá зѺѡͤҶҷ оҹ "һзѺ" 蹴Թ˹ǷѺ͵һзѺзѺŧ ҡСաҧ˹觡ҨС оҳѵطա÷ӢµһзѺ ˹ ҳѵطӴ´Թ˹Ƿͼᴴ оҳѵط͹ѹѺʶٻͧӴ´Թ˹ Թ˹ٻẹաáзѺ¨֡ѡͤҶҹ ҳѵطաä鹾ҳշͧ㹾طʹ оҹ;繤áҨлҡ֡ǡѺ ҧͧѡͷӢͧԴзӫ ѹ 㹢稨ԧоҹԴҨҡҧäٻẺ ҧ դᵡҧѹҧҡ ѡաҧ¡èШѺʶҹ˹ Ǵͧ˹ͧ繡੾繾ɴ оҡ⾸Ԥ繨ӹǹҡʴҾͧоطһзѺ 鹾⾸зç¡ͧ蹴Թ繻Шѡҹ "ҶҢͧоطʹ" ǹ٭仨ҡоҹ оҧҡҶҹѧͧоط оҧʴҾͧоطһзѺçҧ ͺͧҾͧʶٻͧ ҹҧͧоطͧդҶҹ鹻ҡ оҧʴҾͧоط "ѧçعǧ觾и" ǹҧùҶ ҾͧҧͧҾͧǧ͸ѡҡкҷͧ ط Ҿ͹ѹѺҡ㹻еҡҴ˭ͧٻẺ ǡѹ ֧ҩҡͧҾ˵ءó㹾Ъվͧоطҷͧҡͧ ˵ءóҾ˵ءóҡͺ繾ɷ⾸ ҡ ҡТͧҾ˵ءó ѺáзѺ㹾оҹ蹡ѹ ҡҧͧо繨ӹǹҡ衴зѺҾͧը 觷ç෾բͧطʹҷաä鹾Ҿѡʶٻͧ蹡ѹ
ҹͧҺطҤͧաä鹾о繨ӹǹ ҡ áѡ繾оӴ´ԹԺФ鹾ਵʶҹͶ ʹʶҹ㹾طʹ ѧѡ繾оӴ´ԹФ鹾 ਵʶҹͶӷͧ㹾طʹ зѧʹʶҹҧ·ҧ оҹǹ˭ʴҾͧоط ⾸ѵ ෾յкͧ͢ѷҹ оҹöШṡ͡ҧҧ 33 Ẻ ҷ (18)
1) оҾоطҷçʴ;оطһзѺ¾кҷ շٻʹ ٻ׹ ٻç աٻç
2) оҾоطһҧҸ ٻ
3) оҾоطһҧԪ ٻǧ
4) оҾоطҹҤá ٻ
5) оҾоطһҧʴ ٻǧ
6) оҾоطһҧʴ ٻʹ
7) оҾоطè ٻǧ
8) оҾоطԵ ٻǧ
9) оҾɮ⾸ѵ;⾸ѵỴͧ ٻǧʹ ʴҾоطèлзѺ觵çҧ ѭѡɳͧٹҧ觨ѡ ͺ¾⾸ѵỴͧ ѭѡɳͧȷỴ ⾸ѵš ⾸ѵҡȤ ⾸ѵѪûҳ ⾸ѵԵԤ ⾸ѵǹóȡԹ ⾸ѵí ⾸ѵѹѷ о⾸ѵѭ
10) оҾ⾸ѵͧ ٻ

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